Greek philosopher and early scientist. Often called the "father of biology. Karl Ernst von Baer German biologist and scientific explorer. One of the founders of embryology, von Baer discovered the notochord and the embryonic blastula. David Baltimore American biologist. George Beadle American geneticist. By means of x-ray irradiation of the mold Neurospora crassa and screening of the resulting mutants, Beadle showed, with Edward Tatum , that mutations induced in genes corresponded to alterations in specific enzymes.
Erwin Chargaff Austro-Hungarian-born American biochemist whose experiments provided crucial information allowing Watson, Crick, and Wilkins to elucidate the double-helix structure of DNA. Georges Cuvier French naturalist and zoologist. Founder of the fields of vertebrate paleontology and comparative anatomy.
One of the most prolific authors of scientific literature in the history of biology.
- Resilience: a practical guide for coaches.
- A Stolen Life: A Memoir?
- A-Z of Biologists!
- Famous Biologists.
Raymond Dart Pioneering paleoanthropologist. Discoverer of the Taung Child , he was the first scientist to provide hard evidence that humans first evolved in Africa. Charles Darwin English naturalist. One of the most famous scientists who ever lived. His book, On the Origin of Species , convinced many of the reality of evolution.
Abstract - Application guide for omics approaches to cell signaling Full Text - Application guide for omics approaches to cell signaling PDF 2, KB - Application guide for omics approaches to cell signaling. Analysis of genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes reveals the existence of hundreds to thousands of translated, yet non-annotated, short open reading frames small ORFs or smORFs.
Various studies have identified central roles for smORFs in metabolism, apoptosis and development. The discovery of these bioactive SEPs emphasizes the functional potential of this unexplored class of biomolecules. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field and highlight the opportunities for chemical biology to answer fundamental questions about these novel genes. Such studies will provide new insights into the protein-coding potential of genomes and identify functional genes with roles in biology and disease. The past 20 years have witnessed the advent of numerous technologies to specifically and covalently label proteins in cellulo and in vivo with synthetic probes.
These technologies range from self-labeling proteins tags to non-natural amino acids, and the question is no longer how we can specifically label a given protein but rather with what additional functionality we wish to equip it. In addition, progress in fields such as super-resolution microscopy and genome editing have either provided additional motivation to label proteins with advanced synthetic probes or removed some of the difficulties of conducting such experiments. By focusing on two particular applications, live-cell imaging and the generation of reversible protein switches, we outline the opportunities and challenges of the field and how the synergy between synthetic chemistry and protein engineering will make it possible to conduct experiments that are not feasible with conventional approaches.
Full Text - Imaging and manipulating proteins in live cells through covalent labeling PDF 3, KB - Imaging and manipulating proteins in live cells through covalent labeling. Small-molecule inhibitors of protein biosynthesis have been instrumental in the dissection of the complexities of ribosome structure and function. Ribosome biogenesis, on the other hand, is a complex and largely enigmatic process for which there is a paucity of chemical probes.
Indeed, ribosome biogenesis has been studied almost exclusively using genetic and biochemical approaches without the benefit of small-molecule inhibitors of this process. Here, we provide a perspective on the promise of chemical inhibitors of ribosome assembly for future research. We explore key obstacles that complicate the interpretation of studies aimed at perturbing ribosome biogenesis in vivo using genetic methods, and we argue that chemical inhibitors are especially powerful because they can be used to induce perturbations in a manner that obviates these difficulties.
Thus, in combination with leading-edge biochemical and structural methods, chemical probes offer unique advantages toward elucidating the molecular events that define the assembly of ribosomes. Full Text - Chemical modulators of ribosome biogenesis as biological probes PDF 1, KB - Chemical modulators of ribosome biogenesis as biological probes. Proper gene expression is essential for the survival of every cell.
Once thought to be a passive transporter of genetic information, RNA has recently emerged as a key player in nearly every pathway in the cell. A full description of its structure is critical to understanding RNA function. Decades of research have focused on utilizing chemical tools to interrogate the structures of RNAs, with recent focus shifting to performing experiments inside living cells. This Review will detail the design and utility of chemical reagents used in RNA structure probing.
We also outline how these reagents have been used to gain a deeper understanding of RNA structure in vivo. We review the recent merger of chemical probing with deep sequencing. Finally, we outline some of the hurdles that remain in fully characterizing the structure of RNA inside living cells, and how chemical biology can uniquely tackle such challenges.
The upswing in US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency drug approvals in may have marked an end to the dry spell that has troubled the pharmaceutical industry over the past decade.
Regardless, the attrition rate of drugs in late clinical phases remains high, and a lack of target validation has been highlighted as an explanation. This has led to a resurgence in appreciation of phenotypic drug screens, as these may be more likely to yield compounds with relevant modes of action.
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- A to Z of Biologists (Notable Scientists).
However, cell-based screening approaches do not directly reveal cellular targets, and hence target deconvolution and a detailed understanding of drug action are needed for efficient lead optimization and biomarker development. Here, recently developed functional genomics technologies that address this need are reviewed.see
A to Z of Biologists (Notable Scientists) - PDF Free Download
The approaches pioneered in model organisms, particularly in yeast, and more recently adapted to mammalian systems are discussed. Finally, areas of particular interest and directions for future tool development are highlighted.
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