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Calibration of Adsorption Theories, Fundamentals of Adsorption 6, p. Meunier, Ed. Keller J. CrossRef Google Scholar.

Associated Data

Yang R. Mersmann A.

4.3. Chemical Kinetics

Le Van, Ed. Sing K. Rouquerol J. Rouquerol et al. Rudzinski W.

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Langmuir I. American Chem. Sandler S. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, J. Valenzuela D. Panczyk T. Thermodynamics, 28 , — Adsorption of gases on heterogeneous surfaces, Academic Press, London etc. Staudt R. Dreisbach F. Kaneko K. Fowler R.

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Dekker, New York etc. Freundlich H. Zeitschrift Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, 57 , p. Mandelbrot B. Bunde A. Fractals and Disordered Systems, Springer, Berlin etc. Farin D. The fractal nature of molecule-surface activities and physical interactions in porous materials, article in: Characterization of Porous Solids, p. Unger et al. Bottani E. State equations of the solid-gas interface Layers, Acta Chim.

Therefore, one could obtain a linear relation for every overflow height. To include effects such as overflow height and to improve tray efficiency predictions, identification and quantification of transport phenomena—such as gas—solid contacting, hold-ups, hydrodynamics, intraparticle mass transfer, and intrinsic adsorption kinetics—have to be investigated in more detail.

One might postulate that also the gas concentration would also affect adsorption kinetics and hence tray efficiencies, because adsorption kinetics are more or less proportional to the gas concentration at constant sorbent loading. In all the experiments conducted, the amount of gas supplied was always higher than the amount of solids supplied on a mass basis.

This means that for every mole of CO 2 adsorbed, the change in sorbent loading and hence the number of free adsorption sites is higher than the change in gas concentration. This might explain that the effect of the number of free adsorption sites on the tray efficiency is more dominant than the effect of gas concentration.

This paper concludes that the effect of gas bypassing on the removal efficiency in a MSFB targeting deep removal of sour gases by chemisorption is minor. However, this was measured in a fairly small diameter column inner diameter 0. The amount of gas bypassing in a bubbling fluidized bed is dependent on scale: higher and wider beds result in an increase of gas bypassing by growing bubbles.

Therefore, it is not trivial that the amount of gas bypassing will be the same when scaling up. However, if one decides to keep the bed shallow 75 mm bed height in this work , then there is a high probability of operating with low gas bypassing. Only experiments at atmospheric pressure have been performed in this work. These results are valid for postcombustion carbon capture, but not necessarily for sour gas removal from natural gas where the adsorber has to operate at elevated pressures.

When increasing the total pressure, the H 2 S and CO 2 partial pressures will also increase at a fixed volume fraction and hence the adsorber will operate in the higher partial pressure regime of the adsorption isotherm. In conclusion, achieving deep removal will be possible also at elevated pressures. However, the question how tray efficiencies are affected by elevated pressure in terms of uptake rate, mass transfer, and hydrodynamics needs further study.

From the literature, some observations are known when pressure increases. First, a fluidized bed becomes more homogeneous. Second, the local Sherwood number increases.

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Third, the intrinsic adsorption kinetics speed up because of increasing concentrations. All in all, most likely an increasing pressure will enhance the apparent uptake rate and, so, tray efficiency, but it has to be confirmed. In a counter-current five-stage MSFB using shallow beds, very high removal efficiencies up to It was demonstrated that the required deep removal down less than a 3 mol ppm level can be achieved.

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Furthermore, the effects of superficial velocity, solid flux, and inlet concentration on tray efficiency have been reported for one of the first times for a MSFB in combination with a chemisorption process. It was found that the sorbent loading has a significant effect on the tray efficiency: higher sorbent loadings decrease the tray efficiency. More work is however required to identify and quantify the underlying phenomena for the correlation found.

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To conclude, a MSFB is a promising reactor type for adsorptive removal of sour gases from natural gas. Benno Knaken, Johan F. Robin Vet is acknowledged for providing sorbent fluidization snapshots. Fluidization regime of the amine sorbent, minimum fluidization velocity, reproducibility of fixed bed experiments, full column profiles concentration, temperature, and tray efficiency , and duplo experiments in the multistage fluidized bed PDF. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Ind Eng Chem Res. Published online Mar 1. Rick T. Driessen , Martin J.

Bos , and Derk W. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Open in a separate window. Materials and Methods 2. Figure 1. Figure 2.